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章节 I

引言

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内容
  1. I. 引言 (30m)
  2. II. 基本报道 (60m)
  3. III. 基本的故事叙述 (30m)
Resources

基础知识工具箱

欢迎辞

你正在浏览解困型新闻学工具箱的内容,这说明你 至少 对“解困型新闻”发生了兴趣,并且想知道解困型新闻如何能提高你的报道技巧。好吧,我们相信,记者能够从关注社会问题应对措施中获益良多。

有好多充满感染力的故事得不到报道,这是为什么呢?因为新闻业传统一直都拒绝从社会问题的应对措施中寻找新闻调查的线索,认为那不符合新闻业的原则。有些记者和编辑担心,这样的报道会被视为推广软文或是公关宣传。解困型新闻网络(Solutions Journalism Network, 简称SJN)的使命就是要改变这种看法。我们认为,解困型新闻是严格按照新闻的最高标准,围绕社会问题应对措施进行的严谨而有说服力的新闻报道。

Welcome1

我们已经与全球70多家新闻编辑部及数以千计的记者开展合作,证明我们无须畏惧真正的解困型新闻。恰恰相反,解困型新闻对记者来说是一种尚未得到充分利用的重要工具。

SJN是由大卫·伯恩斯坦(David Bornstein)、蒂娜·罗森伯格(Tina Rosenberg)以及考特妮·E·马丁(Courtney E. Martin)共同创立的。大卫·伯恩斯坦和蒂娜·罗森伯格是“《纽约时报》“社会良药”(Fixes)”资深专栏记者,考特妮·E·马丁则在网络媒体爆发伊始就开始了她的新闻与写作生涯。三位记者走过印度的农田、巴西的医院、新奥尔良州的第九区,独特的历程让他们得出了共同结论——当今记者之中还没有形成足够的积极性去争抢写出关于世界社会问题应对措施的优秀报道。

Welcome2

传统观点认为,关于解决方案的报道有损记者的职业精神。新的观点则认为,不报道解决方案的新闻才有损新闻工作者的职业精神。作为记者,我们的任务是坚持高举反映社会的明镜。如果我们不报道大众及机构为解决社会问题而采取的种种措施——无论这些措施成功与否——那将是我们的失职。例如,如果我们仅仅报道学校存在的制度问题,而忽视那些正在改善教育状况的机制,那么我们的报道就是片面的。

许多人选择记者这份职业是因为想改变社会现状,让世界变得更美好。然而,揭露社会弊端并非改变现状的唯一途径。揭露问题所在诚然十分重要,但是如果我们在揭露问题的同时,还能对人们如何解决这些问题予以报道,那么将显著增强新闻报道的影响力。例如,报道教育的新闻记者在大力抨击公立学校没能满足贫困儿童教育的同时,如果还能报道一些学校如何实现“有教无类”,那么这些新闻报道将产生更大的影响。这类新闻故事能够激励读者、听众与观众,改变公众的争论,并且改变政府政策。

人们不会因为有人指出他们的问题就轻易做出改变;他们还要看到是否有改变的可能、有什么样的改变模式。社会也是这个道理。

本解困型新闻学习实验室就是专门为所有愿意从事解困型新闻报道的人设置的。无论你是一个寻求革新报道方式的资深纸媒记者,还是正处于职业生涯中期、希望重拾新闻初心的摄影师,还是正在规划职业生涯的新闻专业学生,我们都希望你能在本学习实验室中有所收获。

本学习实验室将指引用户践行解困型新闻,从第一步(识别值得调查的社会问题解决措施)到最后一步(报道发表后与读者进行互动)。但是,在利用本学习实验室时,你并不需要像使用传统工具书那样亦步亦趋,可以挑选对你最有用的部分进行学习。 

我们将对几个解困型新闻故事的结构进行提炼,协助你突破文思枯竭的瓶颈。本工具箱中包含视频和互动练习,将为你生动地阐释解困型新闻模式;“解困型新闻故事追踪器”(Solutions Story Tracker)将提供案例研究和范文链接;还包括我们网站及其他网站上的资源。除此之外,我们还为医疗、教育、暴力问题等领域的专题记者提供特别指南。

我们将本文件视为一份工作文件,希望你能提出反馈意见与建议。请通过电子邮件、社交网络等方式向我们进行反馈。我们欢迎有助于改善本项资源、能让本项资源更好地服务于不断壮大的解困型新闻工作者队伍的一切意见与建议。  

我们期待你的反馈!

1 评论

  • Erin Bryant

    Thank you for your work and this website! We are thinking about your concept and example this fall as we teach ocean conservation and management at Sea Education Association, the home of SEA Semester college study abroad programs studying the ocean environment, in Woods Hole Massachusetts. Clear, compelling communication of solutions can take us far in the direction of good marine policy!

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Photo Credits: Almudena Toral; Gabe Hernandez/Corpus Christi Caller-Times; Cody Pope; Matt Stokes

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