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  1. I. 引言 (30m)
  2. II. 基本报道 (60m)
  3. III. 基本的故事叙述 (30m)
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基础知识工具箱

如何识别解困型新闻?

以下是写作解困型新闻要遵循的五项准则。并非每个新闻故事都能达到全部标准,不过我们希望这些标准能启发你的思考。

1

深入关注对一个社会问题的应对办法

关键是看有没有描述应对办法,如果没有,就不属于解困型新闻。对这一办法的阐释应以所涉具体社会问题为对象。把社会问题产生的原因记述下来有助于明确解决方案能够在哪些情况下发挥作用、产生影响。

2

仔细观察该应对办法具体是如何起作用的。

优秀的解困型新闻会深挖问题解决的办法,调查“哪些模式能成功改善教育效果”、“这些模式如何实际运作”等的问题。新闻的叙事由解决问题所推动,关注点在于解决问题本身所蕴含的困难。

3

关注的重点应该放在实际效果上,而不在良好的愿望,要拿出实际例证来。

解困型新闻写的是解决问题的想法。不过,判断一个想法可行还是不可行,需要坚实的证据,这一点和所有的优秀新闻报道一样。一些初步想法,其唯一的“证据”可能只是一些可信的观察者的看法,在这种情况下,关键是不能言过其实。

4

不仅是提供启示,还要提供可供借鉴的深刻见解

使解困型新闻具有强大感染力的是它的发现,即报道的过程让读者或观众洞察世界是如何运作的,或许还能告诉他们怎么做才能让世界变得更美好。

5

探讨解决方案的缺陷

社会问题没有完美的解决方案。每种措施都存在前提条件、局限性及风险。优秀的解困型新闻不讳言解决方案存在的缺陷。

6 评论

  • Crysly Egaña

    El periodismo de soluciones está enfocado en la respuesta a un problema social. Ahora, si la respuesta no tiene buena repercusión, de acuerdo con la evidencia encontrada ¿aún se presenta como periodismo de soluciones? Pareciera que el enfoque solo se utiliza si la respuesta, con su respectiva evidencia, dio buenos resultados.

  • Chidindu Mmadu-Okoli

  • Chidindu Mmadu-Okoli

    I love this approach to journalism. Most stories tend to have open-ended angles seeking answers. But, these five points pf focus have opened my eyes to know that stories can also be told from the angle of impact and response and how it is measured.

  • Andrew Hobbs

    These resources are excellent, and I use them in teaching. One question: can you give an example of the 'insight' point?

  • Miguel Herrera Castro

    I'm no a journalist but this approach to journalism is a very interesting angle from which to explore how to communicate NGOs and government's social programs from an insiders view. I think it's always relevant to discuss (in point 2) how the solution can be financially sustainable, what segment of people it targets and what are the intermediate results between the solution and it's desired impact.

  • Chibuike Alagboso

    So does it mean that an amazing idea that has potential to impact a large group of people can be investigated as a solutions story? This is in reference to the last part of point 3 - For early-stage ideas, where the only “evidence” may be the assertions of credible observers, the key is to not overclaim.

Resources

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“这些新闻故事让我感到非常满足,因为我不仅仅是在哀叹费城存在某个社会问题,我还给读者提供了一些新想法。我认为这些新闻故事在社交媒体上获得的反响也表明人们正寻求这种类型的参与及互动,因为这能激发更多对话。”

Davidgambacorta
大卫·甘巴科尔塔(David Gambacorta)
《费城杂志》
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Quiz
Quiz Yourself

Spot the "imposter"

Can you tell which stories are good solutions journalism—and which are just posing? Click on the links to read both stories in each pair, and select the one that you think meets the five criteria. Then click the buttons below to reveal the imposters.

Pair 1 (of 4)

第二篇是“冒牌货”。

从“英雄”一词即可看出。玛吉·多因(MaggieDoyne)显然的确在为尼泊尔儿童谋福利,但是这篇故事聚焦的是她个人,并不是解困措施本身及其运作方式。解困型新闻故事必须将解困内容放在第一位;有见解的领导者可以成为故事的关键人物,但是不能作为推动叙事的主角。

Pair 2 (of 4)

第二篇是“冒牌货”。

解困型新闻故事必须围绕事实展开,展示正在发生的事件、原理及证据。这篇报道呼吁读者采取特定措施,解决流浪退伍老兵问题。公众参与某项事业并不是坏事,但是鼓励读者采取某项具体措施并非记者的职责。

Pair 3 (of 4)

第一篇是“冒牌货”。

通常来说,足球仅仅是一个球而已。其实,这篇报道很好地阐释了“同一个世界足球”的原理,但是言过其实,缺乏相应的证据。记住:不存在完美或“最佳”的问题应对措施;每个解困方案都有其缺陷,应当在新闻故事中指出。

Pair 4 (of 4)

第一篇是“冒牌货”。

我们将这类新闻称之为“智库新闻”:这篇报道揭示了一项针对高等教育入学问题的应对措施,然而这项措施还仅仅停留在理论层面,并未落实为创新实践。智库新闻通常出现在学术研究或是政策领域中,对于指导记者找到实践中的应对措施有一定帮助。但是解困型新闻必须立足于切实存在的应对措施。

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Your information will be used to better support and enable your membership. We care about your privacy and, in accordance with GDPR regulations, request your consent before giving you access to the membership services described above. You will also receive customized communications tailored to your interests as described by your selections. We will never sell your information to 3rd parties. You can cancel your membership and change your communications preferences at any time, though this may prevent you from participating in the opportunities provided by this program. View our full privacy policy here. By clicking submit, you accept these terms.