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  1. I. 引言 (30m)
  2. II. 基本报道 (60m)
  3. III. 基本的故事叙述 (30m)
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基础知识工具箱

解困型新闻的能产生什么样的影响?

通过聚焦解决问题的有效措施,以解决方案为导向的新闻故事在报道社会问题的时候能提供一种新的视角,以此激发政策制定者、实践者和社区成员的新思维。例如: 

促使社区注意到更有效的策略

里安农·迈耶斯(Rhiannon Meyers)在“《科珀斯克里斯蒂时报》”上发表过为期一年的系列报道《糖尿病的代价》。尽管科珀斯克里斯蒂所在的县截肢率位于全美前列,但是糖尿病依然是一种长期受到忽视的隐疾。迈耶斯的系列报道中涵盖了三个以解决方案为导向的故事,介绍了美国其他地方如何进行更好的糖尿病护理。迈耶斯说:“这些解决方案故事……也许是反响最多也是争议最大的新闻故事——我认为部分原因在于这些故事触怒了本地的糖尿病医疗服务供应方……[这些故事]也许是这个系列报道中最有内容的,在这里引发的讨论最多,讨论我们能改变哪些做法以及我们现在缺乏哪些做法。”

打消那些不作为的借口

解困型新闻通过展示某地的成功案例,让其他地方无法为自身的失败寻找借口。21世纪初,艾滋病治疗药物价格昂贵,发展中国家的艾滋病患者一旦确诊便如同被判死刑。2001年,蒂娜·罗森伯格为《纽约时报杂志》撰写了一篇报道,从与众不同的角度入手调查这一问题。她探讨了巴西如何显著降低艾滋病治疗药物价格、如何实施复杂的保健治疗。同时,文章还调查、曝光了美国政府官员和制药公司的行为。罗森伯格的这篇文章让许多决策者开始质疑给艾滋病药物定高价的理由。这篇文章亦被援引为推动成立抗击艾滋病、结核病和疟疾“全球基金”的因素之一。

让组织接触到能转变其影响力的有力想法

“十万安居行动”旨在大幅提高全美长期流浪人员的安置率。项目进行到第二年,进度明显无法完成预期目标。项目负责人在《纽约时报》“社会良药”专栏上读到一个名为“快速成果”的行动项目——即激励一个社区动员它的全部力量行动起来,在100天之内实现其所设定的宏大目标。于是,项目开始接触“快速成果”并将其作为核心策略,在全美社区实施。2014年7月,项目宣布完成安置10万名长期流浪人员的目标。组织者表示这一成果直接归功于项目与“快速成果”的合作。

改变社区对话与官方政策

《密尔沃基新闻哨兵报》记者梅格·基辛格(Meg Kissinger)职业生涯大部分时间都专注于报道精神健康问题。她影响力最大的作品是2013年的“《慢性危机》,”系列报道,记录了由于虐待或忽视导致精神病患者不断死亡,并介绍了精神疾病医疗体系的改革措施。报道甫一见报,密尔沃基市就废除了对于精神健康政策的政治管控,建立了非政治性的密尔沃基精神健康委员会,由精神病领域的专家担任委员。此外,该市的新预算大力增加了用于精神病医护的拨款。《慢性危机》系列报道包括三个关注解决方案的新闻故事,基辛格说这些故事是该系列报道能产生影响力的关键。基辛格说:“探讨问题是报道的一个方面,密尔沃基县精神健康系统有许多这类问题,但是对于读者来说,新闻报道的真正价值是让他们了解到其他社区是怎样应对这些问题并成功的。”

重新设想现状

假如著名财经记者迈克尔·刘易斯决定选择一支没钱又因此一直输球的棒球队作为调查对象,来探究金钱对棒球运动的扭曲作用,结果会如何呢?还会有人有兴趣读这个故事并从中领悟点什么吗?相反,迈克尔·刘易斯选择了解决方案模式,才有了他那篇永远地改变了棒球运动的《点球成金》。

2 评论

  • Claudio Cordovil

    https://pt.scribd.com/document/205260506/The-Cost-of-Diabetes-It-affects-everyone Here we have a clue to the article

  • Dhashen Moodley

    Hi, is there a working link to the article "Cost of Diabetes"?

Resources

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“我们收到的读者反响棒极了……人们开始以前所未有的方式开展讨论,进行前所未有的对话。”

Kathybest
凯西·贝斯特(Kathy Best)
《西雅图时报》
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